Most farmers cultivate agricultural land using agricultural machinery, from simple tools to complex machines. Agricultural machinery is able to improve the efficiency of production factors and increase productivity on the land. The need for agricultural machinery is increasing in terms of land area, technological developments, limited production facilities, etc.
The process of cultivating agricultural land using agricultural machinery will involve the tools, equipment and soil control factors. These factors will continue to involve each other as long as agricultural tools work on the ground. This process includes movement and force on the ground as a result of the work of the tool at that time.
In the process of cultivating agricultural land using agricultural machinery occurs a process that takes place simultaneously or separately. The first process is the process of cutting or grinding agricultural land. While the second process is loading on agricultural land.
Soil Cultivating and Agricultural Land Loading.
We can observe the two processes that follow tillage when farmers do land plowing activities, for example. The pulping process is a process that deals with solving/separating a soil mass into smaller aggregates of soil. We can take examples for this process such as the work of land piracy, land extraction and so on.
The process of loading the soil is a process that is related to the properties of the soil. We can see when agricultural machinery crosses land, for example. This condition will increase soil strength as a result of wheel trajectories, land rollers and so on.
Introduction: Cultivating of Agricultural Land Using Agricultural Machinery.
For simplicity, we capture the land consisting of elements depicted in mesh form. The size of these elements is small so that the pressure on each side of the element will be spread evenly. When farmers cultivate agricultural land using agricultural machinery many of these elements break.
Groundbreaking involves physical-mechanical phenomena on one element and on a micro scale. Loading will cause pressure on the ground and under certain circumstances, the stresses that arise do not spread evenly but are concentrated in several locations in the collection of these elements. This pressure will cause rupture of bonds between soil particles in these locations.
In general, the concentration of high pressure will be followed by a stress concentration. This condition will cause failure. The element breakdown occurs due to the penetration of the cone into a continuous soil block until the clod break occurs by the vertical load. Increased pressure produces deformation in the form of compaction, especially if the soil is in a weak condition. For certain purposes, land requires compaction to strengthen the weak part of the land. If the pressure continues to increase, the compaction process will occur in all soil elements.
In unstable deformations, the volume element suffers from loading without any lateral support so that the possibility of compaction is in the same direction. If the load is increased, the element will shorten which affects the relative movement between the particles. This relative movement will cause a slight bubbling. This is because the land was initially solid. This bubbling occurs especially in the weakest part of the element.
In further loading, deformation and bubbling will be more concentrated in that part which eventually results in local collapse.
Deformation that occurs is stable or not will depend on the stress state and characteristics of the soil. Soil characteristics have two meanings in relation to stability. This is because the nature of the soil affects the form of stress in a soil treatment process.
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