The impact of climate change can befall various sectors. Agriculture as one sector that supports a country’s economy is a sector that is vulnerable to climate change.
Climate change has an impact on increasing air temperature, sea level, seawater intrusion which increases the salinity of agricultural land, changes in rainfall patterns, increases in extreme events. All of these things can affect agricultural production.
Changes in erratic rainfall patterns due to climate change can cause crop failure. This is because the erratic rainfall pattern results in plants not getting water at the time and amount that matches the needs of the plant. Ultimately climate change can trigger a food crisis.
Impact of Climate Change on the Agriculture Sector
The impact of climate change on the agricultural sector is affecting plants, plant health, plant disease pests. At a higher level, the impact of climate change on the agricultural sector affects food security, land productivity, water availability, and the ecosystem of agricultural environments.
Climate change has an influence on soil degradation, water, and plant growth and production. Factors that can trigger soil degradation include the deterioration of the physical, chemical, and biological processes of the soil.
The deterioration of the physical properties of the soil is caused by erosion, compaction, and fractures. The deterioration of soil chemical properties caused by nutrient washing, acidification, and salinization, while the decline of the biological nature of the soil due to reduced soil organic matter and biodiversity of soil biota.
The impact of climate change on the agricultural sector can spread from rising air temperatures. Increased air temperature can accelerate plant growth and maturity. On the other hand, plants can also suffer from stress because the temperature of the air that increases in extreme causes disrupted plant metabolism.
An increase in temperature can also affect the intensity of plant pests. That is because increasing temperatures affect the life cycle of pests and plant diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and various kinds of parasites.
The activity of soil microorganisms can increase with increasing soil temperature and humidity. This can speed up the process of decomposition of plant residues.
Impact of Climate Change on Organic Material Decomposition
Soil organisms destroy remaining plant material into smaller sizes. Soil microorganisms can utilize plant remnants and decompose into simple organic matter. This organic material will become an ion, so that plants can utilize it for growth. This means that various soil microorganisms in the physical, chemical and biological processes of the soil provide a positive function in supporting the fertility of agricultural land.
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