Agriculture as a resource that supports the economy of a country is a sector that is vulnerable to climate change. Climate change can trigger a food crisis. This is because climate change will cause crop failure due to erratic rainfall patterns. This erratic rainfall pattern results in plants not getting water at the time and amount that matches the needs of the plant. There are other things that need to be considered, namely the impact of climate change on decreasing biodiversity of soil organisms.
Climate change has an impact on increasing air temperature, sea level, changing patterns of rain, and increasing extreme wind events. These impacts will ultimately affect agricultural production.
Impact of Climate Change
Climate change ultimately has an influence on soil degradation. Soil degradation can be triggered by various factors including the deterioration of the physical, chemical, and biological processes of the soil. Erosion, compaction, and fractures cause a deterioration in the physical properties of the soil. nutrient washing, acidification, and salinization cause a deterioration of the chemical properties of the soil. While the reduction in soil organic matter and biodiversity of soil organisms causes a deterioration in the biological properties of the soil.
Increased air temperature due to climate change can accelerate plant growth and maturity. But on the other hand, plants also suffer from stress because the temperature increases so extreme that their metabolism is disrupted. In the agricultural sector, the impact of climate change affects land productivity, water availability and environmental ecosystems. This next turn will affect food security, crop productivity, plant health, and plant disease pests.
Impact of Climate Change on Decreasing Biodiversity of Soil Organisms
The impact of climate change can lead to increased soil temperature and humidity. Both of these can accelerate the decomposition of plant residues due to increased microbial activity. However, rising temperatures can also have an impact on increasing the intensity of plant pests. This is because the increase in temperature has an influence on the life cycle of plant pests and diseases. Increased temperatures can affect viruses, bacteria, fungi, and various parasites that interfere with plants.
The interaction of various microorganisms, microflora, and soil fauna has a role in the processes of physical, chemical, and biological soil. All three have benefits to support the fertility of agricultural land. Soil organisms have a role in destroying plant debris. Plant remnants that have become small in size can be utilized by soil microorganisms to become simpler organic materials. This simple organic material will eventually break down into ions that are beneficial for plant growth.
The results of the decomposition process of organic matter will have many roles, among others, make soil aeration better, mix nutrient layers and lower layers, loosen the soil, change the remains of plants into humus, and play a role in soil aggregation between organic matter and soil minerals.
Climate change can affect the biodiversity of organisms found in the soil. Soil organisms need certain temperature conditions for their activities. Therefore extreme conditions and an increase in soil temperature will affect the decrease in diversity of soil organisms.