Review of Earthquake Resistant Building Structure

The review of earthquake resistant building structures is very useful for residents who live in earthquake areas. They need technical access to earthquake resistant building structures. So they can adjust the resources available around them with earthquake resistant building structures.

earthquake resistant building
earthquake resistant building

In order to become a building that is resistant to earthquake then you need to pay attention to the structure of the building.As in the review, this structure will discuss Footings, columns/ post, roofs, and walls.

Earthquake resistant building structures – Footing.

The Footing is a lower structure that holds the structure above and forwards the load to the ground so that the Footing satisfies the following.

You must choose a solid ground to place the Foundation, which is laying the foundation on a hard ground. Footing lies deeper than 45 cm below ground level. The whole Footing must lie on a strong ground.

You must connect the Footing with the footing belt (sloof). This gives on the local footing (pedestal) and the continuous footing.

Sloof / the footing beam (sloof) should be lumped on the Footing with a 1.5 m with 12 mm diameter iron reinforcement.

You should not lay the Footing too close to the cliff wall to avoid landslides.

To prevent cliff slopes, you should provide a ground holder with a rock-stone pair or from a bamboo or wooden plaster.

Earthquake resistant building structures – Column / Column.

columns or poles to help the wall in holding the load above it while making the wall into a ductile wall. The things to note in the column are as follows.

Buildings should use columns as load-bearing elements, eg using reinforced concrete columns.

The column should be laid on the Footing beam (sloof) or the bond is passed to the Footing.

You must tie at the top end of the bony column or each column. You need to put it together with a beam around / ring balk.

Building frames (Sloof, beams, and columns) should have a strong and sturdy relationship.

The column should be equipped with a stiffening beam (ring balk, latei beam) to withstand the lateral force of the earthquake.

Earthquake resistant building structures – Building Beams.

The beams on simple house building consist of ring balk (beam around) and lintel beam. Latex beam/lintel has a function as a horizontal reinforcement and is generally located above the frame. Crosslinks can be mounted when possible.

see: Overview Architecture of Earthquake Resistant Buildings

Overview Architecture of Earthquake Resistant Buildings.

This architecture of earthquake resistant buildings review is very useful for residents who live in earthquake areas. They need access to architecture of earthquake resistant buildings. So they can customize the available resources with architecture of earthquake resistant buildings.

Our previous writings have examined the damage to buildings caused by earthquakes. We have also studied the concept of the simple earthquake-resistant building. This is important for people living in earthquake-prone areas.

architecture of earthquake resistant buildings
architecture of earthquake resistant buildings

Simple earthquake-resistant residential buildings in an architectural review include three things: the discussion of design, roof and wall building openings.

Architecture of Earthquake Resistant Buildings – Design.

Building design should have a symmetrical shape because this form can eliminate the effect of torsion. Simple symmetrical design forms, among others, squares and rectangles.

But we can choose a symmetrical design that is not simple for our home. The shape of the circle and the many facets is including the design of a symmetrical shape that is not simple.

Buildings that have an asymmetrical design should be separated into sections that have a symmetrical shape.

You must separate the L-shaped building into two square and rectangular buildings. You should also separate the T-shaped building into 2 or 3 square-shaped symmetric designs and rectangles.

To avoid twisting effects on buildings, you must separate the asymmetric shape into a symmetrical shape.

Design that is too long will reduce the strength (performance) of buildings if there is a decrease in buildings and differences in movement behavior. This is due to the effects of non-structural reality and the reality of loading. Therefore, you should separate buildings according to the conditions of land and building uniformity.

For example the building is too long then you have to separate into 2 or three sections of the square shaped building.

Architecture of Earthquake Resistant Buildings – Roof Building.

Basically, roof forms that are too big and too heavy can endanger the security of the structure as it can lead to larger earthquake loads. Therefore, roof buildings should use lightweight roofing materials such as zinc, asbestos or aluminum. You should tie the asbestos or zinc roofing material on gording with nails, iron plates or bolts.

For areas one and two, when using a roof tile should be tied to the batten. While on the tile that has a hole can be tied to a nail. The tile that does not have a hole should be tied every 4-lane roof with wire fastener.

Overstek usage that is too long can cause the center of the building to shift from the center of the building. Long oversteks are also vulnerable (more risky) to earthquake-shaking vertical directions.

Simple Earthquake Resistant Building Concept.

This simple earthquake resistant building is very useful for residents who live in the quake areas. This time we’re not discussing the cause of the earthquake here, maybe next time on another page at  Countries with middle-low income inhabitants desperately need a simple earthquake resistant building concept. People in low-income countries generally do not pay attention to simple earthquake resistant building techniques. They only utilize the natural resources that exist around.

Objectives Planning for Earthquake Resistant Buildings.

The purpose of planning earthquake resistant buildings as follows below.
Prevent and reduce the incidence of human fatalities.
Prevents, reduces, or protects people from injury.
Prevent and reduce the occurrence of damage to buildings.
Prevent and reduce the incidence of damage to the contents of the building (property, furniture, and valuables).

earthquake resistant building
earthquake resistant building

We can formulate earthquake resistant building concepts based on references written by earthquake experts, institutions and studies from a field survey in earthquake-damaged areas.

The Principles of Earthquake Resistant Buildings.

Earthquakes can be classified into 3 levels ie, light earthquakes, moderate earthquakes, and heavy earthquakes. In the construction of simple earthquake resistant, residential buildings must meet the principles of earthquake-resistant buildings. These principles are as follows.

In the event of a light earthquake, the building is not damaged.

In the event of a moderate earthquake, the technical building may suffer damage to non-structural elements but should not be damaged in its structural elements. Simple earthquake-resistant buildings may damage the walls.

In case of a major earthquake, the technical building may suffer damage to its non-structural elements and structures. Fixed buildings should not collapse, while simple buildings may suffer wall damage and retrofitting practically. We can still repair the damages that arise.

Buildings that are resistant to large earthquakes are ductile buildings (clay, a lot). The ductile building is the ability of the building to change shape but still can accept the burden. The opposite of ductile builds is the brittle building. The brittle building is not very resistant to earthquake shocks.

Buildings Damage caused by Earthquakes.

Buildings damage caused by earthquakes can be severe or mild. Buildings damage caused by earthquakes depends on the condition of the building and the strength of the earthquake. There are several points of Buildings damage caused by earthquakes are more severe than other buildings.

Buildings damage caused by earthquakes
Buildings damage caused by earthquakes

Strong earthquakes can cause damaged facilities and infrastructure. Some scientific studies concluded that the damage to buildings by the earthquake occurred in many residential buildings inhabited by people with middle to lower income. The damage encountered can be either one or a combination of damage to the roof, walls, and foundations.

Building Damage caused by Earthquakes: Roof Sections

Sharp angle roof cover will be sliding due to unbound tiles with battens.

The earthquake will cause the roof covering scattered. This is because some of the battens and rugs have been weathered.

The roof frame that is not tied to the wall (not drained at the ends of the pedestal) causes the roof of the roof is less stable. Earthquakes will move the roof easily.

Ceiling/ceiling collapsed due to the bonding hanger is weak and heavy ceiling load. Cockets and practical columns that do not have a strong bond because there is no armature-armature that unites it. In addition, the practical column bonds with the ring balk are inadequate so that the structural elements do not work and there is damage to the building at the time of the building in the quake shock.

Building Damage caused by Earthquakes: Wall Sections

Buildings are not given lintel blocks that serve as horizontal binders to withstand earthquakes.

Tempus of mountains (ampigs) that are not given the strengthening of the top of the wall and the quality of building materials that do not meet the requirements. Such a wall would easily collapse during an earthquake.

Unconfined vertical reinforcement mounts will cause damage to the middle during an earthquake.

Buildings that do not use fastening frames (practical columns and ring balks) of reinforced concrete make the building very fragile. Earthquakes will knock down buildings like this all of a sudden.

Support placement is not strong enough to withstand the frame load of the building-caused horses not using the load-bearing element of reinforced concrete (practical columns and ring balks) at the bottom of the frame of the roof’s horses so that the building is damaged in the event of an earthquake.

Building walls only have half height only with wooden poles as a buffer roof. A large roof load will weigh on a weak wooden pole so that during an earthquake, the building column is unable to withstand the horizontal load caused by earthquakes. This resulted in the building collapsing.