The tropical agricultural land is capable of harvesting throughout the year, but farmers face the problem that organic fertilizer on tropical agriculture land unsuccessful. Farmlands in the wet tropical area mostly have low soil organic C content. In intensive farming areas generally, have a low soil fertility due to the thickness of the thin layer of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to cultivate organic material, but farmers bumped into the constraints of organic fertilizer on tropical agriculture land unsuccessful.
Farmers would expect the fertilization of organic matter on agricultural land would increase crop yields. Farmers add organic materials derived from manure or compost. The organic material will pass through the decomposition process. The process of decomposition of this organic material will produce nutrients for plants, especially in developing organic farming.
Decomposition – Organic Fertilizer on Tropical Agriculture Land Unsuccesful.
In decomposition, organic waste passes through simple physical and chemical changes by soil microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, and other soil animals). The process of decomposition can be called as mineralization is the process of destroying organic materials derived from animals and plants into simple organic compounds. Indeed, decomposition is a very complex process involving several factors.
Leaf litter, cattle dung, household waste and others reaching the ground will decay slowly. Gradually, the activity of the soil organism will incorporate organic matter residues into the soil mineralized horizon. The result of this organic material process becomes an important factor supply to the availability of phosphorus, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and other nutrients.
Rotting organic matter releases nutrients into the soil. This process is an important sequence of ecosystem functions. If the process of releasing this nutrient is too fast it will be lost through soil washing or evaporation. Conversely, if the decomposition is too slow then the nutrients as plant nutrients will be less so that it inhibits plant growth.
Environmental factors affect the rate of decomposition of organic waste such as pH, temperature, humidity, the chemical composition of waste and soil microorganisms. The decomposition process runs gradually, where the fastest decomposition rate occurs in the first week. This is because in the new waste there is a lot of food elements for soil microbes or organisms to decompose.
In some places in the tropics, the rate of decomposition passes through a relatively slow process. This is because some tropical trees have sclerophyllous leaves.
Leaves that have sclerophyllous properties are strong leaves, have a broad vs. low weight ratio so that they are relatively resistant to decay or during the first stage of decomposition.
Wet Tropical Soil Characteristics – Organic Fertilizer on Tropical Agriculture Land Unsuccesful.
Some tropical country countries have high biodiversity but also have problems due to the high rate of decomposition of organic matter. The high rate of decomposition of soil organic matter resulted in the effectiveness of the value of the function of organic matter to be low. The rate of decomposition of tropical regions with isohipertermic temperatures is 4 times higher than in subtropics.
Farmers do the fertilization of organic materials long before the planting period. However organic fertilizer on tropical agricultural land is often unsuccessful. Farmers generally use organic materials derived from manure, manure + straw, or compost. Observation on peanut plants after fertilizing organic material 4 months earlier showed a high difference in plants that are not significant. This shows the unsuccessful residuals of organic matter providing nutrients for plant growth.
Farmers face soil fertility problems that are generally low on intensive farmland. Factors influencing this are due to the thickness of the thin topsoil layer, the acid pH, the low organic matter content, and there is a solid layer below the coating. Therefore, the carrying capacity of the land for plant growth is low. Utilization of soil biological resources is an important strategy for improving soil organic matter, preventing erosion and nutrient leaching, and roaming the roots become wider and better groundwater availability.
Development of Organic Agriculture
Environmental factors affect the rate of decomposition of organic waste such as pH, temperature, humidity, the chemical composition of waste and soil microorganisms. In tropical agricultural areas, the rate of decomposition of organic matter is high, high temperature, erosion and nutrient leaching.
In tropical agricultural areas, farmers can still develop organic farming. Development of organic agriculture is feasible in areas close to consumers/markets, has a relatively low rate of soil organic matter decomposition, has a high level of soil chemical fertility, no potential for pollution by heavy metals and pesticides, and high economic commodities.