We may have seen it in everyday life but we don’t understand organic compounds. Therefore we need to understand organic compounds in their functions in life. Organic compounds can include lipid groups. Well, the group that includes the lipid group includes oil and fat.
Oil and fat have extensive functions in society. People use oil and fat for various purposes of life. They use it as food and non-food ingredients. They use it in the cosmetics, paint industry, soap industry, lubricants, medicines, and others. Here, we realize the importance of understanding organic compounds in their functions in life.
Understand Organic Compounds.
We mentioned earlier that vegetable fats and oils are one of the groups included in the lipid group. This lipid group we know as an organic compound found in nature. These organic compounds are not soluble in water. However, we can dissolve lipids in non-polar organic solvents, such as diethyl ether (C2H5OC2H5), Chloroform (CHC13), benzene and other hydrocarbons.
Why can vegetable fats and oils dissolve in non-polar organic solvents? We can dissolve the fat and oil in the solvent because fat and oil have the same polarity as the solvent. We need to pay attention to this important point as a basis for understanding the chemical processes that occur.
Actually, organic compounds or other chemical compounds will easily dissolve in solvents with the same polarity with solutes. However, we need to understand that the polarity of dissolved materials can change due to chemical processes. We can take an example, for example, fatty acids in the KOH solution are ionized. This fatty acid becomes more polar than the original so it dissolves easily. And we can extract fatty acids with water.
Understanding Lipid Groups.
Plant oils and animal oils are all lipid groups. Actually, we can look at oil and fat in one group. However, we often see from physical nature. Therefore, we often consider oil and fat to be different. From a chemical standpoint, vegetable oils and animal oils are the same as fat.
Fat and oil are compounds of triglycerides or compound esters. The results of the hydrolysis of fats and oils are carboxylic acids and glycerol. Oil is a general term for all organic liquids that are insoluble/mixed in water (hydrophobic) but soluble in organic solvents. Oil also has other additional properties, namely, we will feel slippery when holding.
We distinguish oil from fat based on its physical properties at room temperature. This means we see oil and fat in the conditions of everyday life. In conditions of room temperature, oil has a liquid form and fat has a solid form.
Oils and fats have various constituent substances. Generally, people only know a few. People know terpenes and terpenoids.
Usually, people know this type of oil as an essential oil or etheric oil. And secondly, people know glycerides or fatty acids. We understand these fatty acids as cooking oil, vegetable oil, fish oil, raw materials for soap, lubricants, and fuel. Generally, this group has a solid or liquid form at room temperature. These fatty acids cannot evaporate at room temperature.
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